In South America- almost every
other country shares a border with Brazil only Chile and Ecuador are
untouched and covers almost half the continent. It is the fifth largest
country in the world, behind Russia, Canada, China, and the U.S.A., with an
area of eight and a half million square kilometers.
Despite its vast territorial expanse, population of Brazil is concentrated
in the major cities of its coast. The urban sprawls of Rio de Janeiro and
Sao Paulo dominate the southern coast. Further north, towns such as Salvador
and João Pessoa retain the colonial atmosphere of the early Portuguese
settlers. The great interior, much of which is covered by the rainforest
basin of the Amazon, remains sparsely settled.
The Amazon River and its tributaries cover almost half of Brazil's
territory, the basin of a region that is one of the world's largest
rainforest ecologies. Unfortunately, a substantial proportion of this area
has suffered the effects of modernization in recent years. From the Amazon's
mouth on the Pacific to Manaus, the region's bustling main city, the river
is heavily traveled, and wildlife is scarce. Away from the cities and the
main course of the Amazon, however, smaller tributaries lead past unspoiled
habitat and traditional villages.
The Brazilian Shield dominates the country's interior, the South of the
Amazon region, It is an expansive bedrock flat that is slowly falling victim
to the elements. The Mato Grosso, a smooth, grassy plain in Brazil's
center, slowly gives way to the Planalto, a low-rise plateau that extends
across the central and western regions. In the far west, along the border
with Paraguay and Bolivia, is the Pantanal, one of the most extensive
swamplands in the world.
Brazil's winter lasts from June to August, with temperatures between 13 and
18C, but it only gets really cold south of Rio. Summer is from December to
February, a period frequently bringing stifling humidity to the far south.
Brief rain showers are common, given Brazil's tropical climate, but the dry
interior has only a few months of heavy rainfall a year. Of course, the
Amazon Basin is the wettest area, with damp, moist temperatures averaging 27
Covering nearly half of South America and the
continent's largest nation ,Brazil extends 2,965 mi (4,772 km) north-south,
2,691 mi (4,331 km) east-west, and borders every nation on the continent
except Chile and Ecuador. Brazil may be divided into the Brazilian
Brazil climate is characterized by five climatic regions of Brazil:
equatorial, tropical, semi-arid, highland tropical and subtropical. Brazil
climate varies considerably from mostly tropical North (the equator
intersects the Amazon) to temperate zones lying below the Tropic of
Mixture of races and
ethnicities Brazil is the result of its rich diversity, many original
Portuguese settlers married native women, which created a new race, called 'mestizos',
'Mulattoes' are descendents of the Portuguese and African slaves, Slavery
was abolished in 1888,............
The first European settlers to arrive in the area were the Portuguese, who
were led by adventurous Pedro Cabral, who began the colonial period in 1500.
The Portuguese reportedly found native Indians numbering around seven
million. Most tribes were peripatetic,............