Poland in Polish
is Polska and officially it is the Republic of Poland (Polish:
Rzeczpospolita Polska). It is a country in Central Europe bordered by
Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine
and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and Kaliningrad
Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north. It also shares a maritime border
with Denmark and Sweden. The total area of Poland is 312,683 sq. km (120,728
sq. mi), making it the 69th largest country in the world. Poland's
population is over
38.53 million people, concentrated mainly in large cities
such as the historical capital Kraków and the present capital Warsaw.
The first Polish state was created in 966,
within territory very similar to the present boundaries of Poland. Poland
became a kingdom in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a long association with
the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by uniting to form the Polish-Lithuanian
The Commonwealth collapsed in 1795. Poland
regained its independence in 1918 after World War I but lost it again in
World War II, occupied by Nazi Germany and Soviet Union, emerging several
years later as a communist country within the Eastern Bloc under control of
the former Soviet Union. In 1989, communist rule was overthrown and Poland
became what is informally known as the "Third Polish Republic". Today, as
the 6th most populated member state of the European Union, Poland is a
liberal democracy made up of sixteen voivodeships (Polish: województwo).
Poland is also a member of European Union, NATO, the United Nations, OECD
and the World Trade Organization.
Along with the Baltic Sea to
the north, Poland shares its other borders with Germany (specifically, the
former East Germany), the Czech Republic, Russia, the Ukraine, Slovakia,
Belorussia, and Lithuania. Aside from mountainous southern and southeastern
border regions, Poland........
Poland’s climate is temperate but winters here can be wet and cold.
Chilling winds whip across the great plain during the late fall and winter
months and precipitation is common - expect plenty of rain and some snow...........
The outcome of a long tradition and history is the unique character ofPoland
Cultur. It was at the crossroads of theLatinateandByzantineworlds
in its own unique way. The advent of people into Poland from different parts
of the world............
The written history
of Poland begins with the reign of Mieszko I, who accepted Christianity for
himself and his kingdom in AD 966. Poland had hardly begun to play a part
in history when it acquired extraordinary power. This was in the reign of
the famous Boleslaw Chrobry (992-1025), the eldest son of the first Polish